The reconstruction is performed using similar tissues to the structure that needs to be repaired. These tissues may be transposed from areas adjacent to the lesion or may be transplanted from distant zones by means of microsurgical techniques.
Reconstructive microsurgery consists in the transplantation of tissues from one part of the body to another and in the replantation of amputaded body parts. The tissue is transferred together with its vascular system (arteries and veins that feed it), in order to assure its survival in a new location.
To be able to carry out the transplant, it is necessary to put together with sutures minute arteries, veins and nerves with the aid of an operative microscope and by means of very precise surgical instruments. Once the connection between the vessels is performed blood flow is restored through the transplanted tissue. The tissue transposed may be skin, fat, muscle, bone, nerve or any combination of them.
The region employed to extract the tissue (termed donor site), does not usually entail any medical problems, since the areas chosen generally allow for direct closure of the wound without functional loss.
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